Lifestyle Risk Factors
- Low Calcium Intake - Consumption below 300 mg per day (which is equal to one glass of milk) is considered low.
- Low (or no) Vitamin D in Your Diet - Vitamin D comes from sunlight and foods such as egg yolks, fortified milk and cereals, and some types of fish.
- High Caffeine Intake - More than two to three cups of caffeinated coffee each day is considered high if you have a low calcium intake.
- Tobacco Use - This includes current use as well as past use of tobacco.
- Alcohol Use - More than 7 oz. of alcohol per week can slightly increase the risk of hip fractures.
- Low Activity - Your activity rate is considered low if you do not walk or exercise regularly.